Objectives: Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs in both animal and plant cells. Protozoan parasites possess metacaspase and these caspase-related proteases could be involved in the PCD pathways in these organisms. Therefore we analyzed the activities of metacaspase and PARP genes in Leishmania infantum (MCAN/IR/96/LON49) treated with miltefosine.
Materials and Methods: Anti-leishmania activity of miltefosine was studied by treatment of cultured promastigotes with various concentration of miltefosine. MTT assay and Annexin-V FLUOS staining by using FACS flow cytometry methods were used. Cytotoxic potential of HePC on the amastigots of L. infantum was evaluated in J774 cell line. In addition, metacaspase and PARP genes expression of treated L. infantum were studied. Results: Miltefosine led to dose-dependent death of L. infantum with features compatible with apoptosis. Over expression of metacaspase and PARP was seen 6 hr after treatment.
Conclusions: Our study showed that miltefosine exerts cytotoxic effect on L. infantum
via an apoptotic-related mechanism
Background: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the oldest anesthetic in routine clinical use and its occupational exposure is under regulation by many countries. As studies are lacking to demonstrate the status of nitrous oxide levels in operating and recovery rooms of Iranian hospitals, we aimed to study its level in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical
Methods: During a 6-month period, we have measured the shift-long time weighted average concentration of N2O in 43
operating and 12 recovery rooms of teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Results: The results show that the level of nitrous oxide in all hospitals is higher than the limits set by different countries
and anesthetists are at higher risk of exposure. In addition, it was shown that installation of air ventilation could reduce not
only the overall exposure level, but also the level of exposure of anesthetists in comparison with other personnel.
Conclusion: The high nitrous oxide level in Iranian hospitals necessitates improvement of waste gas evacuation systems and regular monitoring to bring the concentration of this gas into the safe level
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease that affects many people in the world, hence researchers are trying to design more effective and safer medicine, because of many limits in present chemical drug. In this regard, botany- derived products are the most attractive materials. The aim of this study was to determine the possible Allium sativum - induced cell death in Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes. RPMI1640 cultured L. major promastigotes were subjected to different concentrations of A. sativum and viability of the parasites was assayed by MTT. Annexin V- FLUOS staining was performed to study apoptotic properties of the extract using FACS flow cytometry. Furthermore,metacaspase and PARP gene expression of treated L. major was studied. Apoptotic dose-dependent
death of L. major accompanied by DNA fragmentation, cell contraction and externalization of phosphatidylserine with intact of integrity of plasma membrane was observed. In addition, overexpression of metacaspase and PARP was seen 4 h after treatment. Current study revealed that A.sativum extract induced apoptotic phenomenon in standard strain of L. major.
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major.
Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested.
The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazoltetrazolium assay (MTT). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12.
Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly.
Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites.
In the transplant recipient patients receive immunosuppressive therapy, the possibility of reactivation of the old infection or acquisition of infection from a donor’s tissue increases. In this study, IgMand IgG anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins seroconversion in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have been evaluated before and after transplantation.This is prospective cohort study on a total of 102 RTRs. Two serum samples were obtained from each patient.
The first was taken before administration of any immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids and the second was taken 3 months after transplantation. The IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were assayed by enzymelinked flourescence assay (ELFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. IgM/immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) method has also been used. All RTRs were tested for toxoplasmosis before and after transplantation. ELFA identified 65 (63.7%) pretransplantation samples as IgGz and did not detect any positive IgM samples. However, IgM was detected in three(2.9%) post-transplantation samples by this method. Forty-nine (48%) pre-transplantation samples were reported IgGz by ELISA and no IgM positive sample was identified by this method. ELISA has detected two (1.9%) IgM-positive reactions in post-transplantation samples. By IgM/ISAGA method, we have detected no IgM positive reactions in pretransplantation samples, whereas 3 months later (second sampling) IgM antibody was detected in 3 (2.9%) cases. Secondary toxoplasmosis infection was observed in 30 cases per 1000 RTRs, which indicates that screening for toxoplasmosis infection should be performed in developed countries for these patients. On the other hand, as the risk of re-active toxoplasmosis infection exists in developing nations, they should consider the necessary preventive measures to control this condition.
The present study delineates the effect of tamoxifen on neuronal density and expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in hippocampal nerve cells during prenatal and postnatal periods in rats. Pregnant rats were administered with tamoxifen one day prior to labor(E21) and on the childbirth day (E22). Hippocampi of embryos at E22 and newborns at postnatal days of 1, 7, and 21 (P1, P7, and P21)were investigated. Density of the neurons in areas of the developing hippocampus including cornu ammonis (CA1, CA3), dentate gyrus,and subiculum were studied. Our findings show that the number of pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased in CA1 and subiculum of tamoxifen-treated rats in E22, P1, and P7. We found that cellular density was lower in early stages of development, however, cellular density and thickness gradually increased during the development particularly in the third week. We found that nNOS expression was decreased in E22, P1, and P7 in animals treated with tamoxifen. The present study shows that tamoxifen affects development and differentiation of postnatal rat hippocampus, CA1 neurons, and nNOS expression
Background: The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract(AGE) on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major.
Methods: Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) were added to the in-vitro cultured J774cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74,148 mg/ml) were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method.
Results: The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major.
Conclusion: Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes confirmed
هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی اثر عصاره ابی سیر در افزایش سیتوکین های اینترلوکین 10 و 12 در محیط کشت از طریق ماکروفاژ ها برای در یافت و تخریب لیشمانیا است. لیشمانیوزیس، بیماری است که به وسیله چندین گونه از تک یاخته های جنس لیشمانیا ایجاد می شود. به عنوان یک عامل درمانی، سیر یکی از معمول ترین گیاه مرسوم سیستم پزشکی محسوب می شود.
سابقه و هدف : توكسوپلاسموز از جمله بيماري هاي مشترك انسان و حيوان است كه انتشار وسيعي دارد و در اثرآلودگي به تك ياخته انگلي توكسوپلاسما گوندي ايجاد مي شود. بيش از نيمي از مردم كره زمين داراي عفونت مخفي توكسوپلاسموز مي باشند. در افرادي كه تحت عمل پيوند اعضاء قرار مي گيرند به علت كاهش سطح سيستم ايمني بدن احتمال فعال شدن مجدد اين عفونت نهفته وجود دارد، ضمن اين كه احتمال انتقال عفونت از بافت پيوند نيز وجود دارد.هدف اين مطالعه ارزيابي تغييرات ايمونوگلوبين هاي IgG و IgMضد توكسوپلاسما در گيرندگان پيوند، قبل و بعد از عمل بود.